Some of these immune deficiencies may present in childhood (sometimes very early in life) and some may not develop until adulthood. Primary immune deficiencies may have a genetic component and affect more than one person in a family. These are different in origin than secondary immune deficiencies such as HIV, immune-complex diseases, and cancers such as leukemias or multiple myelomas. Not only can affected individuals suffer from more frequent or severe illnesses, but they may also have issues with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, poor digestion, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and weight loss. Recurrent lung infections can make pre-existing asthma more difficult to manage or may lead to chronic lung disease. Diagnosis of an immune deficiency involves an in-depth examination of the immune system via laboratory studies which look at the number of white blood cells, the types of white blood cells, and the types and levels of protective antibodies. Depending on the result of these laboratory tests, booster vaccinations might be administered and the body’s response to the these evaluated. Once diagnosed, there are a number of approaches to reducing the frequency and severity of infections and helping these patients lead to happier and healthier lives, including quicker and more aggressive treatment of illness, replacement of the missing immune components (immunoglobulin therapy), prophylactic treatment with antibiotics or antivirals, and scheduled preventative health screenings.